Hi Jakub Ferencik,
I would like to refer you to my friend Frans Du Plessis and his magesterial post on Quora in which he summarizes current scholarship on the origins of Judaism as well as presenting some of his own conclusions.
Anything I could tell you on my own would be a pale imitation of his analysis. If this is a subject that fascinates you, I think you’re in for a serious treat.
Do we have extra-biblical evidence for the origins of the Israelites?
Answer (1 of 17): > Do we have extra-Biblical evidence for the origins of the Israelites? I am referring to Abraham…
His answer should be at the top of the list of answers. If not, just do a search in page for “frans du plessis”.